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Diabetes

What is Diabetes?

Diabetes is a condition that causes high blood sugar (glucose) levels in the body and does not properly process food for use as energy. When you have diabetes your body doesn’t make enough insulin or can’t use its own insulin as well, that results sugars to build up in your blood. This is the reason why diabetes is also referred as sugar.

Diabetes can causes some serious complications of health for example blindness, heart disease and kidney failure

Blood Sugar Level Chart
mg/dl Fasting 2 Hrs Post Meal
  Min Max  
Normal 70 100 <125
Pre Diabetes 101 125 140-200
Diabetes >126 >200

Symptoms

Excessive thirst

Hunger

Blurry vision

Fatigue

Slow-healing sores or cuts

Frequent urination

In case of type 1 diabetes, people may experience rapid weight loss. If diabetes develops slowly, as in case of type 2 diabetes, it may go undiagnosed until long term symptoms appear, such as a heart attack or pain, tingling in the feet and numbness.

Tests Available for Diabetes
Blood Sugar
Microalbuminuria
HBA1c
GTT
Lipid Profile

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Types of Diabetes

Diabetes is categorized in 2 types

Type 1 Diabetes

This type of diabetes is categorized as an autoimmune disease. It occurs when the body’s misdirected immune system attacks and destroys insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. The exact cause of type 1 diabetes is not completely understood. People with type 1 diabetes have to take insulin daily to manage their condition.

How is type 1 diabetes treated?

In case of type 1 diabetes, you’ll need to take insulin regularly to help your body use the sugar in your blood. You can also help to keep your blood sugar level in a healthy range with proper diet and exercise as recommended by your consultant. People with type 1 diabetes have to monitor their blood sugar regularly to see how much insulin they need.

Diet and exercise

People with type 1 diabetes should be careful with regular meals and snacks in order to keep their blood sugar stable. A dietitian familiar with diabetes can assist you in developing a healthy balanced eating plan for you. As exercise also affect blood sugar levels, insulin amounts may need to be adjusted according to your level of exercise.

Type 2 Diabetes

This type of diabetes usually develops gradually with age and referred as insulin resistance in the body. For some reasons that are still unclear,  the cells of the body become unable to use insulin effectively. This resistance makes the body’s fat, liver, and muscle cells unable to take in and store glucose that is required for energy. The abnormal accumulation of glucose (blood sugar), called hyperglycemia, impairs body functions. Type 2 diabetes is common in people who are overweight and sedentary. However family history and genetics also play a major role in type 2 diabetes.

Treatment for type 2 diabetes

If You are going through type 2 diabetes, you can manage it easily by consulting with endocrinologist. Your endocrinologist will tell you how frequently you should check your blood glucose levels. The goal is to stay within a specific range during fasting and random.

Below mentioned are the tips to manage type 2 diabetes:

Eat at regular intervals

Include foods that are rich in fiber and healthy carbohydrates in your diet.

Eating fruits, vegetables, and whole grains will help keep your blood glucose levels steady.

Only eat until you’re full.

Control your weight and keep your heart healthy.

Avoid sweets

Reduce animal fats to a minimum.

Do exercise helps to control blood glucose and keep your heart healthy too.

Your Doctor(Endocrinologist)  Is the best individual who can explain how to recognize the early symptoms of blood glucose that’s too high or too low and how to react in each situation. Your doctor will also help you learn which foods are healthy and which foods aren’t.

One thing you should know that, not everyone with type 2 diabetes needs to use insulin. If you do, it’s just because your pancreas is not producing enough insulin on its own. It’s crucial that you take insulin as directed. There are other prescription medications that may help as well.

Gestational Diabetes

Gestational diabetes is defined as blood-sugar elevation that affect the women during pregnancy; it is known to affect around three to eight percent of women. Left undiagnosed or untreated Gestational diabetes can lead to serious problems such as high birth weight and breathing problems for the baby. All pregnant women undergo for the gestational diabetes test between 24 and 28 weeks of pregnancy, as this is when this problem usually originates. Gestational diabetes usually resolves in the mother after the baby is born, however insights demonstrate that women who have gestational diabetes have a widely greater chance of developing type 2 diabetes within five to 10 years.

How is gestational diabetes treated?

If you’re diagnosed with gestational diabetes, your treatment plan will be dependent on the blood glucose levels throughout the day. In most cases, your doctor will advise you to test your blood sugar before(Fasting) and after meals (Random) and manage your condition by eating healthy and exercising regularly. In some cases, they may also add insulin injections if necessary.

If your doctor encourages you to monitor your blood sugar levels, you can check it yourself very easily by using Glucometer (glucose-monitoring device). Your doctor may also prescribe insulin injections for you until you give birth to the child. Ask your doctor to adjust timing of your insulin injections in relation to your meals and exercise to avoid low blood sugar. Your specialist can also tell you what do if your blood sugar levels fall too low or are consistently higher than they should be.

Prediabetes

Prediabetes increases not only your risk of developing diabetes but also your risk of heart disease and stroke. Although prediabetes is not in fact diabetes, some experts now consider it to be the initial step to type 2 diabetes. This condition is marked by blood sugar levels that are too high to be considered normal but are not yet high enough to be in the range of a typical diabetes diagnosis.

How to treat prediabetes

Treating prediabetes is the step to prevent type 2 diabetes. If your doctor diagnoses you with prediabetes, they’ll recommend certain lifestyle changes. A study called the Diabetes Prevention Program showed a reduction of approximately 58 percent in people who kept up with these changes in the long term.

The most common ways to manage prediabetes are:

  • Take a diet that’s rich in fiber
  • Exercising regularly
  • Reduce weight
  • Take medicines as per doctor prescription

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